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Fauna

Ujung Kulon has a vast array of wildlife, quite a number of which are endangered or rare.they others are sighted almost every day, many are heard rather than seen, and some are rarely seen.
java rhinoJavan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Sondaicus)
The most precious of all the animals in the parks is the cigenter riverJava one-horned rhinoceros, the rarest large animal on earth. Once found across much of south east Asia, the first accounts of the Java rhino date back to China’s T’ang dynasty (A.D. 618-906) when Java was noted as a source for rhino horns. In Java during the 1700’s rhinos were so numerous and damaging to the agricultural plantations that the government paid a bounty for every rhino killed, bagging five hundred within two years.
Ujung Kulon’s rhino population is now estimated at around fifty individuals and they were believed to be the last remaining Javan rhino in the world until a small population was recently discovered in Vietnam. However, these are so few in numbers that their viability is unlikely and so Ujung Kulon remains the last home of this magnificent pachyderm. In appearance the Javan rhino is closest to the Indian rhino, both having a single-horn and skin folds or plates but there are distinct differences between their neck plates and skin textures.
The Javan rhino also has a long prehensile upper lip which extends below the lower allowing it to grasp foliage. The body shape of the Javan rhino is designed to push aside the undergrowth and only the male Javan rhino has a prominent horn while the female has a lump similar to a halved coconut. Earlier this century Javan rhinos were measures as being over 170 cm. At the shoulders, more than 3 metres in length and 2,200 kg. In body weight but a recent photographic survey indicates that the largest rhino in Ujung Kulon may be around 150 cm. in height. Rhinos range over a maximum distance of 15 to 20 kilometres a day in the densely forested lowlands of the Ujung Kulon Peninsula and to the east of its isthmus.
They are most mobile at nights, like wallowing in mud pools and sometimes venture onto beaches and grazing grounds. Although actual sightings of rhinos are rare, their prrints and droppings are often found on the trails, sometimes unnervingly fresh. Javan rhinos are believed to be capable of running as fast as a person and so advice to visitors, should they happen to come across one, is to climb the nearest tree and take a photo – in that order.
Monkey (long-tailed crab eating macaques)
Ujung Kulon has five species of primates with the brown, long-tailed, Crab-eating, macaques being the most commonly seen especially on beaches and reefs at low tide. Peucang Island ssupports four separate groups numbering over two hundred individuals.
The macaques’ strongly hierarchical society is based on a marline system – daughters stay with the mother as long as they live while juvenile males usually leave the group to join another group or become solitary. Within the group structure there can be several adult males with one being the dominant but tolerant leader.
Female macaques usually rank just below their mothers and, interestingly, above older sisters so that even babies from highly ranked mothers can control adult males and females. Primarily fruit eaters, the macaques’ diet includes a wide variety of food and their cheek pouches can hold the equivalent of a stomach load of food which allows for hasty food gathering to be eaten later. Each group has its own territory and although they sleep in trees they do not build nests and unlike the park’s other primates they are equally at home on the ground or in trees.
Another primate, only found in Java, is the glossy komodo lizardblackish-brown Javan silvered leaf monkey which has long, slender limbs and tail. They frequent most regions of the park particularly the Gunung Honje Range but unlike the macaques their groups are small and usually contain one adult male, several females and their young. The rarely seen Grizzled leaf monkey in slightly heavier than the Javan silvered leaf monkey and has a grey coat, long tail and head crest. Very small populations of this extremely rare and endangered monkey live in the Gunung Payung and Honje Ranges.
Also endangered is the Javan or Moloch gibbon which is unique to West Java and its habitat in Ujung Kulon is the primary forests of the Gunung Honje Range. These tail-less primates have grey fluffy coats and black faces annd make a distinctive hooting call resembling their Indonesian name Owa. Gibbons are monogamous, mate for life and live in small family groups consisting of a male, female and one or more young.
Biawak (Monitor Lizard)
These animals has a long body, resembling a lizard, small eyes, a bit rough scaly skin gray, his skin hard, very sharp teeth. Forked tongue at the edges, always stuck out like ular.Bila walk-julur slow motion, but when hunting prey or chasing lizards others, he can run fast. Although her vision is less sharp, but the smell is very tajam.Satwa this includes eating wild prey alive or dead. Bite is not poisonous, but their saliva contains an extremely deadly poison.
Banteng (Bos Javanicus)
Bull has a sturdy body, big and strong with the front shoulder higher than the back of his body. There are a pair of horns on his head. In a male bull horns, black glossy, pointed and curved into the mid-anterior direction, while the female bull horns form smaller. On his chest there bagioan gelambir starting from the base of the foot until the neck is still not reaching the esophagus (Hoogerwerf, 1970). According to Hoogerwerf (1970) bull has a sense of smell and hearing are very sharp compared to the vision. Legakul and McNeely (1977) states that the bull is not so sharp vision so the ability to distinguish main enemies depends on the ability of smell and hearing. Therefore, the wind direction is very important for the bull to study the environmental conditions. Bull’s body color varies and can be used to distinguish the sexes (Legakul and McNeely, 1977). Bull male has a black body color, the older age of the black color of the body. Bull female has a body color reddish brown, the older the age, the body will be the darker color (dark brown). In young bull that male and female both have the same body color is brown, making it difficult to distinguish gender. But the child’s body color of both male and female bull lighter body color than the body of an adult female bison. Hoogerwerf (1970) stated also that the bull’s body varies according to location. Bull that was in the area of West Java are generally black in color more than the bull that was in the area of East Java that is more brown in color. This is probably caused by habitat and climatic conditions.
Merak (peacock)
Peacock usually found in the paddocks. This species is a species typical and very large with an upright crest on the head. Shiny green peafowl hairy on the neck and chest and has a longer tail fan of a female peacock, feathers have a round ball like eyes. Peacock usually eat seeds, grass seeds, shoots, leaves, termites, grasshoppers and other small reptiles. In the evening perched on tall trees that rarely leaves. The uniqueness of these animals has always signaled a danger to all animals living in paddocks with a loud voice.
Owa Jawa (Javan Gibbon)
Javan Gibbon is one of the primates in Ujung Kulon that have habitats in the region of Mount Honje. Having a short tail, soft fur gray and black face that caused this primate named gibbons. Gibbons are monogamous animals mate once in her life, and live in small family groups consisting of a male, a female with one or more children. young adult animals left the group to further explore the forest to seek a mate and new territory.

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